Category Archives: Dog Breeding

Short Haired German shepherd Facts and Pictures

From the perspective of the coat length, German shepherd dogs (GSD) fall into either of the two broad categories: a short haired German shepherd or a long haired German shepherd.

Short haired German shepherd or short coated German shepherd is exactly as it sound. This simply means that the German shepherd’s coat lies very close to its body and is usually a double layered coat.

German shepherd with fewer hair

short haired german shepherd

short haired German shepherd with lighter color

short haired German shepherd with a common coat color

German shepherd with more hair than short haired

The undercoat is woolly and water proof,  which provides extra insulation for the German shepherd in the cold (perfect for the winter) and with an additional stiff short haired outer (top) coat.

Long haired German shepherd is also referred to as coated German shepherd or long coated German shepherd. These German shepherd dogs have longer hairs (soft and silk like) around their bellies, ears, faces, behind their legs, hindquarters, their tails and indeed generally more hairs than the short haired.

Most long haired German shepherd however do not have undercoat which makes them less suitable for working in the cold while some other long coated German shepherds have the undercoat just like the short haired German shepherds i.e. they are double coated.

There are however some German shepherd dogs that do not have a short or long coat because their coat is longer than a short coated German shepherd but not as long as a long coated German shepherd.

These German shepherd dogs are said to have a medium coat and are referred to as plush coated. Just like the short coated German shepherds the plush coated German shepherd are also double coated with nice wool like undercoat and longer outer coat.

plush coated looks like the short haired German shepherd
Plush coated GSD have a little more hair than the short coated German shepherd
plush coated German shepherd lies down on the grass
Plush coated German shepherd can be mistaken for the short coated German shepherd

Regardless of the length of hair on the body of the German shepherd dog, be it short, plush or long hair they still all belong to the same breed. However because long coated German shepherd breeders do not breed their German shepherd for protection or guard work, these long haired German shepherds are said to have much softer temperament.

Long coated German shepherd dogs without the double coat are viewed as a defect in conformation dog shows. In fact in the united states of American long coated German shepherd either double or single coated are not permitted to compete in dog shows by the American kennel club because the long coat are not considered to have met the standard for the German shepherd breed.

There are more short coated German shepherd dogs than long coated German shepherds. There are only a small percentage of long coated German shepherd puppies. This is partly because the American kennel club does not approve of long haired  German shepherd which makes the long coated puppies difficult to find.

The long coat has its origin in the breed that was used to start the German shepherd breed, which had coats like collie.

Short haired German shepherd shedding

There is a misconception that the long haired German shepherd shed more than the short coated German shepherd but this is not true.

On the contrary, a closer observation of both the short and long coated German shepherd might even suggest that the short coated German shepherd shed more than the long haired German shepherd because when the short coat German shepherd sheds, the hairs are all over the house. However the shed hairs of the long coated German shepherd tend to get trapped in their long coat.

Therefore with regular brushing this creates the illusion that the long haired German shepherd shed less than the short coated German shepherd.

However the fact is that the German shepherd breed is a heavy shedder and indeed one of the worst of all dog breeds. Either short or long coated. While most dog breeds shed moderately a few times during the year with a heavy shedding occurring twice. The GSD sheds all year round with some of the heaviest shedding of any dog breed occurring during those two shedding seasons of the year.

While all German shepherd dogs of the various coat length shed a lot, the single long coated German shepherd (without the undercoat) sheds the least of all because it has only a single layer of coat to shed.

If we look back at the primary reason the German shepherd was bred, this may give us a closer insight about the shedding nature of this particular dog breed. The German shepherd dog were bred primarily as working dogs on farms for herding sheep and this will involve having a strong, large-sized and intelligent dogs that can work all year under different weather conditions.

A dog that will do well in all weather conditions must be well coated i.e. it must have an undercoat that will always keep it well protected from the harshness of the different weather conditions and also able to repel water. Above all, it must be able to retain this coat all through the year.

Shedding which occurs quietly on daily basis is how the German shepherd retains its coats. Same way the birds drop their feathers in order to grow new ones.

The two major shedding season of the German shepherd (including other breeds) occurs over three weeks in spring and autumn. As temperature increases during summer the German shepherd shed the undercoat, enabling them to stay cool in the hot summer weather. When the temperature drops in the winter the summer undercoat is shed for a thicker winter undercoat.

Regular brushing of the German shepherd dog (GSD) is almost mandatory if you don’t want your GSD to end up with a matted coat particularly with the long hair German shepherd. Regular brushing is also necessary to reduce the amount of German shepherd dog hairs flying all over the house.

While grooming for German shepherd dogs is a necessity, the short coat German shepherd will require less grooming.

Pictures of short haired German shepherd

beautiful short haired German shepherd

perfect specimen of a short haired German shepherd

short haired German shepherd with angulation

white short haired German shepherd

Miniature Golden Retriever: 24 Vital Facts and Images

Miniature golden retriever is a cross breed that has its origin in the United States. It is referred to by different names such as comfort golden retriever, petite golden retriever and mini retriever.

miniature golden retriever puppies

litter of miniature golden retriever puppies

beautiful miniature golden retriever

The petite golden retriever is the outcome of selective breeding (cross breeding for specific traits) aimed at satisfying the wishes of lovers of golden retriever who are not very comfortable with the large size of the breed.

More images of the miniature golden retriever

trainng a petite golden retriever

miniature golden retriever with a gentle disposition

miniature golden retriever are great retrievers

miniature golden retriever is an intelligent breed

For this reason, golden retriever breeders worked towards producing a designer version of a golden retriever that is smaller in size.

Hence the mini retriever was born and along with it came a new class of dog breeders – the miniature golden retriever breeders.

The mini golden retriever is a cross breed of three different dog breeds: Golden retriever, Poodle and Cocker Spaniel.

miniature golden retriever is a cross breed

miniature golden retriever is a mix of 3 different breeds

miniature golden retriever with ball in mouth

Depending on the comfort golden retriever breeder, your miniature golden retriever puppy may have anything from less than 50% to as high as 75% golden retriever genetic makeup while the poodle and cocker makes up the remaining percentage.

Before we take deeper look at the comfort golden retriever, let us first take a brief view of the three dog breed types from which mini golden retriever is bred.

How to Start a Dog Breeding Business:Steps to Follow

Dog breeding business is a lucrative venture though it may be demanding in terms of time and effort and will also require some financial investment, but before you can start making money from breeding dogs it is very important that you have a good grasp of the processes involve in how to start a dog breeding business.

how to start a dog breeding business
How to start a of dog breeding business.

Dog breeding business can be hugely rewarding and can provide a constant source of income but it requires a lot of patience, commitment, effort and time to evolve your love for dogs into a truly profitable venture.

The foremost step on how to start a dog breeding business is learning how to become a dog breeder.

This will involve far more than just acquiring a female and a male dog and getting them together to mate in order to produce pups. In order to be a successful in dog breeding you must acquire the necessary knowledge to become an expert in dog breeding.

Perhaps the most challenging part of starting a dog breeding business is the amount of research and knowledge that you will require about dogs and breeding before you can get into the business of making money from dog breeding.

To become a successful dog breeder it is very important that you have the knowledge of different dog breeds, temperament, history, genetics, dog breeding techniques, pedigree, and how to care for the dam and the pups among other things.

It is very easy to think that you have acquired enough knowledge and then you rush into breeding dogs but your success as a dog breeder is going to be judge by the quality of dogs that you breed and it will take some years before this reality starts to show up, basically as your pups grow into adulthood.

Therefore if you fail in this regard, then you should expect your business to be hurt by it.

Success in dog breeding is a simple equation: you have to become a professional and an ethical breeder. If you are driven entirely by the desire to make money from dog breeding, then you cannot be an ethical breeder and therefore success will be a struggle.

You should know that being an ethical breeder does not mean you will not make good money; on the contrary you will make a lot of money. However the price that you will pay for being an ethical breeder can be expressed in one word: patience.

How to start a dog breeding business begins with having a thorough understanding of what it takes to become a professional dog breeder. This is very important because the business aspect of dog breeding will fail woefully if you fail as a dog breeder.

Therefore this article will cover what is required to become a successful breeder and then the business aspect of it.

If you want to start a dog breeding business it is very unlikely that you will intend to pursue this ambition with a male dog because it is the owner of a female dog that can be considered a dog breeder. This means that having a female dog is the very first step in your journey to making money by breeding dogs.

However this is not to say that you cannot be a breeder if you only have a male dog but it just does not put you in the commanding position you should be as a dog breeder who wishes to make a business out of dog breeding.

In fact if you intend to make money from dog breeding as a full time job, then you should have both the female and the male dog that you will use in breeding. Otherwise you should research for an ideal stud to mate with your female dog and then get in touch with the owner.

Some important facts to bear in mind regarding dogs to be employed for breeding

  • The dogs that will be involve in breeding that is the dam (female dog) and the stud (male dog) must pass a thorough health check.
  • The larger the dog breed, the larger the number of puppies in a litter. The average for large dogs is around 12-15 puppies and a world record of 24 puppies was delivered by a mastiff.
  • Ensure that you pay attention to the weight of the dogs i.e. you should make sure that the dogs are about the same weight. For instance if you mate a big size male dog with a much smaller female dog, the female dog may have difficulty in delivery because the pup may be a little too big for her.
  • Also if the dam is overweight it will increase the probabilities of producing smaller litters because she will not be able to produce as many eggs and if she is under weight she will end up producing few puppies that will be smaller in size.
  • You should equally pay attention to the diet of the dogs particularly the dam before, during and after pregnancy.

The following are expected of a professional dog breeder

  • A professional breeder will have a breed focus; this may be one or two breeds but will he usually start out with a focus on one specific breed.
  • The breeder will position himself or herself as an expert on the breed, the go-to-person on the breed. How much knowledge he has on the breed will play a vital role on how successful he will be with the breed.
  • Successful breeders pay a great deal of attention to the health of their dog and this includes the dog food; they do not cut corner by feeding their dog cheap and low quality food.
  • A professional breeder knows that one of the primary objectives of dog breeding is “breeding to improve the breed” and always strive to achieve this objective with every successive generation of the breed.
  • Professional breeders will have a written contract that protects all sides involve in the transaction by clearly stating what is expected of all parties to the agreement.
  • Professional and ethical breeders are not driven purely by the love for money but the love for dogs and so they are not in a great hurry to sell off their pups. They wait for them to develop mentally and stay around with their mom for about 8-9 weeks before selling them; this time frame make it easier for the pups to adjust better to their new homes.
  • If dog breeding is well regulated in the country of the breeder with established kennel club (e.g. American kennel club), then the proper thing is to get register. This will give credibility to the breeder and makes it easier to market and sell his dogs. Some people not even buy from breeders who do not have the kennel club registration.
  • A professional breeder who is not breeding solely for the purpose of making money but also have the love of the dogs at heart will still be available to the new owners of the pups even after sale.

Heat cycle of the female dog and the breeding techniques

Part of the nuts and bolt required for a successful dog breeder is a thorough understanding of the heat cycle of the female dog. The estrous (heat) cycle of the female dog persist for the entire life of the dog and unlike humans it does not come to a halt. Canine pregnancy last for 9 weeks.

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Many experts on canine reproduction including Dr. Robert Van Hutchison, Dr. Threlfall of Ohio State University and Dr. Billinghurst in his book grow your pup with bones all agree that it is much healthier to breed your bitch and not miss a heat cycle i.e. you should breed your bitch every single heat cycle. While this may sound counter intuitive, this conclusion is based on scientific finding.

Build a Dog House:How I Built Mine in 14 Easy Steps

Building your own dog house is an inexpensive way to create a special and customized house for man’s best friend.

build a dog houseIn this article you do not need to worry about unraveling the plan of a dog house because it is integrated into the following simple, short and practical 14 step processes that just about anyone can follow to build his own dog house.

Before setting out to build a dog house it is essential that you have a general understanding of the most important material (in this case wood), that you will use to build the dog house.

This knowledge will help you in making the right decision when choosing wood type to build a dog house that will last some years.

When building your own dog house you can choose between 2 durable options of either wood or plastic. Both have their strengths and weaknesses:

  • Wood is an excellent choice if you are concern (and you should be) about the insulation for your dog house from cold and heat.
  • An easier material for getting the job done if you are going to build the dog house yourself.
  • The sturdy nature of wood is perfect for a jumpy and chewing dog like yours.
  • Wood wears out over years and therefore may require some yearly maintenance such as painting.
  • Vulnerable to termite infestation.
  • Wood tends to absorb dog odors over time.
  • Plastic is very durable and far more light weight compared to wood.
  • Easier to clean up and does not tend to absorb the dog’s odors like wood.
  • While plastic also provide some measure of insulation, it is however not as good as wood and may therefore require additional insulating material.

The post will be working with wood. The best wood to use for outdoor furniture must be able to withstand the ravages of nature – the harshness of the sun or drenching rains – on a long term.

It is therefore essential that you have some basic understanding of different wood types so that you will be in the best position to choose the best wood type for building your dog house.

An excellent wood for outdoor furniture like a dog house must have some resistance to insect infestation and rot.

There are 2 major ways that woods tend to resist rot. Chemical compound found in some woods such as cedars, cypress, redwood offer rot resisting barriers that is offensive to agents of decomposition like bacteria and bugs.

While wood types like ash, birch, pine and spruce have little or no resistance to rot.

The other way that woods that are excellent for outdoor use prevent rot resistance is through physical barriers. Some wood types such as black locust and white oak have a structure called tyloses which fills up the pores of the wood thereby shutting moisture and decay causing agents that thrive in moisture from getting into the wood.

Wood types fall into 2 general categories: soft or hard wood. This is based on the structure and type of the wood and not its durability.

  • Soft wood – They are not weaker than hard wood but are generally less expensive than hard wood because they come from coniferous trees which grow quickly.
  • Hard wood – They come in a variety of grain patterns, texture and colors and are therefore very good in making good looking furniture, however they could be quite pricey.

Some types of soft woods are: cedar, fir, pine, spruce and redwood.

Some hard wood types: ash, birch, cherry, mahogany, maple, oak, popular, teak and walnut.

Some common wood types used in building dog house include:

  • Cedar
  • Spruce

The wood type that will be the best for building your dog house will depend on the temperament of your dog and your climate. If your dog like to chew then a sturdy wood type will certainly be an excellent choice.

In the post we will be working with cedar (however you can use any wood type of your choice) for a number of reasons:

  • Cedar is good for areas with high humidity.
  • Generally used for outdoor projects like building exteriors, decks, furniture, etc. because it is good at handling moist environment without rotting.
  • The dimensions or size of cedar is unaffected by weather, temperature or humidity conditions. This means that unlike other wood type cedar does not get warped by exposure to moisture.
  • Cedar is able to resist insect damage far better than other wood types.

Make sure that your choice of wood type for building your dog house is not treated with any chemical that may harm your dog’s health such as pressure treated pine.

The content of this article would work perfectly for a medium sized dog however you can easily scale the size to accommodate the size of your dog either bigger or smaller.

Requirements :

  • Tape measure
  • Circular saw
  • Work bench (or 2 saw horses)
  • 10’ cedar 2×4
  • Safety goggles (glasses) – make sure to use this in order to prevent wood debris from getting into your eyes.
  • Hammer
  • A bag of 16d nails
  • A bag of 8d nails
  • 4’x8’ sheet of untreated cedar plywood siding
  • 8’ cedar 2×4
  • Cedar shaving
  • Hand file
  • 1 gallon of exterior wood primer – you apply the primer before painting
  • 1 gallon of exterior enamel paint
  • Roofing shingles
  • Roofing nails


dog measurement for building dog house
Take the measurement of the dog before building the house

The first step in building your dog house is to measure your pet’s height, weight and length and add 12 inches to the height, 18 inches to the length and 9 inches width in order to get the dimensions of your dog house.

A medium size dog of about 25” height, 23” length and 21” width will require a house dimension of 37” high, 41” long and 30” wide.

Because a dog’s body heat warms the house, it should be just big enough for your dog to stand in and turn around easily.


Put the 10’ cedar 2×4 on the work bench and cut it into 8 pieces with the circular saw:

  • 2 pieces that twenty two and seven eight inches long (22 -7/8”).
  • Another 2 pieces that are twenty and three quarter inches long (20-3/4”).
  • Cut the remaining 4 pieces each into six inches long (6’’).
wood dimension for building dog house
Cut the 10’ cedar 2×4 into 8 pieces.


The dog house will be fitted with legs so the house can stay some inches above the ground. This will help to prevent water from getting in and also protect the dog from the cold ground in the cold periods of the year.

With the circular saw ground (i.e. rounded the edges) one end of each of the 4 (6’’) pieces, these will become the legs of the dog house.

legs of the dog house
The making of the legs of the dog house.

Then take 2 of the legs and 1 of the 22 ‘‘7/8 pieces and line up the flat edges of the legs (the rounded edge in the other direction) with the edge of the platform side (22 ‘‘7/8) and nail the 2 legs to the 22 ‘‘7/8 using the 16d nails. Repeat the step for the other side. These 2 pieces will be the 2 sides of the platform.

legs of the dog house
The finished legs of the dog house.


The 2 20’’3/4 pieces will be used as the front and back of the frame, place the 2 side pieces of the legs from step 2 above opposite each other with the legs inside and nail the front and back pieces to the sides pieces that contain the legs.

the base of the dog house
Finished product of step 4: the base of the dog house


Put the 4’x8’ plywood on the work bench (or saw horses) and cut it according to these dimensions:

  • 2 bottom pieces of 20’’3/4 inches by 25’’7/8 inches.
  • 2 roof pieces of 31’’7/8 inches by 21’’7/8 inches.
  • 2 side pieces of 16’’ inches by 25’’7/8 inches.
  • One back piece of 22’’ inches wide and 27’’ inches high.
  • One front piece of 22’’ inches wide and 27’’ inches high.
bottom pieces of the dog house
The 2 bottom pieces of the dog house.
roof pieces of the dog house
The 2 roof pieces for the dog house.
side pieces of the dog house
The 2 side pieces of the dog house.
back piece of the dog house
The back piece of the dog house.
front piece of the dog house
The front piece of the dog house.

Dog Breeding Info:Steps for Successful Dog Breeding

Though a demanding venture, dog breeding can be pretty rewarding if you have the appropriate dog breeding info necessary to help you make a success of it.

dog breeding info - lots of puppies Dog breeders naturally fall into 2 categories: a novice dog breeder or an experienced dog breeder. And for the person who is yet to at least have her bitch give birth to a puppy, he does not qualify to be referred to as a dog breeder.

This article will take an exhaustive view on how to become a successful dog breeder from the starting point of a novice breeder. For a starter in dog breeding, you need to have a clear picture of the demands of the profession as this information will greatly enhance your chances of being a successful dog breeder.

Some basic question for every new dog breeder

  • Why do you want to breed dogs? For fun, personal or commercial reasons?
  • Do I want to breed dogs on a part time basis or full time?
  • If you intend to breed dogs on a part time basis, would you be willing to invest the time and exercise the patience required to nurture your litters until they are ripe enough to go into their new homes? This can take as much as 2 months.
  • Do you have capacity to meet the financial requirements of the recommended health checks for the bitch and her litter?
  • Are you willing to invest both time and money in acquiring the necessary dog breeding information that will be helpful to you and that will also put you in a position to impact the right knowledge, in various aspects of care for the puppies, on the new owners of your puppies?
  • Will you be able to handle it if your bitch gives birth to a large litter?
  • How will you find good homes for my puppies?
  • Do you have the capacity to take back the puppies from their owners if such a situation should arise?

If as a new entrant into the dog breeding business either for personal or commercial reasons and you are unable to provide convincing positive answers to the above questions then you will be better advised not to continue with your wish to breed dogs.

If however you have passed the foregoing test, then the next set of things to keep in mind are:

  • As an intending dog breeder you should always strive to ensure that every litter is an improvement on the parents.
  • Special considerations must be given to the health and temperament of your bitch and her litter.
  • As a dog breeder that cares for your puppies, you must make sure that you are available to provide the new owner with the needed help and advice.
  • Always make sure that your bitch is healthy enough to give birth to a litter.
  • Check the health status of the stud as well.
  • Keep in contact with your vet once your bitch is close to giving birth.
  • Maintain a list of the places where your puppies can be sold or advertised for sale.
  • Make sure you have a contract attached to every puppy sold.

Breeding to improve

One of major objectives of breeding dogs is to improve the quality of the breed. Therefore a worthwhile refrain for a dog breeder to keep in mind is “breed to improve”.

When you set out to breed you should take the time to properly evaluate the strong and weak points of your dog before going ahead with your decision to breed, if you truly want to achieve the noble goal of producing a better dog and a higher quality pet.

This will involve examining your dog in order to identify its flaws and then look for a stud that will help to balance or eliminate those flaws in the litter that will be given birth to.

A good way of objectively identifying these flaws is to put your dog up for test against other dogs and see how your dog measures up when juxtaposed with the finest specimens of its breed.

The female dog heat cycle

The female dog has a heat cycle or estrous cycle which is a period or season of heightened sexual arousal and activity. A mature bitch (female dog) will normally experience two heat cycles in a year or once on rare occasion. The heat cycle will usually kick in when the bitch is between 9-12 months old.

However it is not advisable to start mating a bitch until she is at least 2 years old for the simple reason that some of the most essential health checks such as hip and elbow dysplasia cannot be done until they grow to around this age.

But once they reach this age of maturity it is safe to start breeding your bitch but only after you have carried out the necessary health checks to confirm that it appropriate to put her through breeding.

It is important to know that the female dog heat cycle never ceases and will last for the life time of the bitch but that is not to mean that she must be breed for her entire life time. Ideally, you breed your bitch for a period and then you put her out of service, in manner speaking, and some breeder will simply spay (take out the ovaries) her to signify the end of breeding for her.

The heat cycle is in four stages: proestrus, estrus, diestrus (an interval of sexual inactivity between periods of estrus), and anestus. These four stages are controlled by three hormones:

  1. Estrogen – kick starts the heat cycle.
  2. Luteinizing hormone (LH) – kick starts ovulation.
  3. Progesterone – preserves pregnancy.

Proestrus is the first stage of the bitch heat cycle that can last between 3-17 days but on the average you can expect it to last for about 9 days. The level of estrogen would begin to rise some weeks before the proestrus and will peak and fall within this phase. During this heat cycle the bitch’s body is getting ready for possible pregnancy and her vulva become swollen to about three size her normal size and protruding out outwards.

Estrus is the second stage of the heat cycle can last between 2-12 days but on the average you can expect it to last for about 9 days. With the drop of estrogen in the first stage of the heat cycle, the level of progesterone starts to rise and reaches a plateau at labor or false pregnancy (at diestrus). The level of luteinizing hormone (LH) also rises sharply during this phase and kick starts ovulation within 3 days. This is the period that the bitch will accept a male dog to mount her. The female is become very flirtatious and start teasing the male dogs around and also lifting her tail sideways when with the male in readiness for mating. This habit of tail side wards lifting of the tail is called flagging.

dog breeding info of a dam in heat
A female dog in heat.

Diestrus is the third stage of the heat cycle can last between 50-80 days but on the average you can expect it to last for about 60 days. This phase will kick in even if she is not pregnant though her body will behave as though she is pregnant (false pregnancy).

Anestrus is the last phase of the heat cycle and can last between 130-250 days. This is a resting phase when the bitch is sexually inactive and her body is preparing for the next heat cycle.

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The different breeding methods

There are different types of dog breeding methods: inbreeding, cross breeding and line breeding. No dog breeding info will be complete without this knowledge.

The primary reason behind the man’s conscious involvement in dog breeding is to ensure that we can breed dogs to meet our wishes, otherwise dogs will naturally continue to mate and reproduce randomly with every breed mating with any available dog either of the same breed or not. This results in birth of mutts i.e dogs of unknown parent breeds.

Generally a dog will fall into one of the following three groups: purebred, mutts or designer dogs. A mutt is a result of accidental cross breeding which usually happens naturally when dogs meet other dogs and mate to produce a dog of unknown parent breeds. Such an offspring is called a mutt.

A designer dog is also the product of cross breeding like a mutt however designer dogs are a product of conscious cross breeding of known parent breeds which are usually purebred. Since designer dogs are of different parent breeds, it is difficult to tell what the traits of offspring will be and even offspring from the same litter may differ significantly since each offspring could end up with any combination of any of traits of the parent breeds.

Purebreds on the other hand are breeds that have been bred over many generations of that breed to the point where certain traits has been enforced within the breed. This means that the traits of purebred dogs like the temperament, looks, coat type etc are predicated and well documented so a person that purchases a purebred will know for certain what to expect and how to care for the breed.

Since the intention behind man’s conscious involvement in dog breeding is to breed dog that meet certain purpose e.g. working dogs such as German shepherd for protection. while at the same time improving the breed with successive generation. Therefore in order to understand how this is achieved we need to have some basic understanding of genetics, a very important dog breeding info.

In any complex life the genes is underlying material that determines the outcome of life. The traits of a pup are determined by parent genes. Genes exist as a pair and a pup will inherit one copy from both parents to form a pair i.e. the genotype. Genes not only occur in pair but dominant genes will always manifest in the offspring while recessive genes will only manifest if it occurs in pair.

This means that a parent dog breed can have either of these possibilities: dominant/dominant (DD), dominant/recessive (DR) and recessive/recessive (RR). Since the dominant gene will always show in the offspring for instance if one of the parent has a dominant gene (DD) for a health related problem then all the offspring will suffer from the same health problem even if the other parent has a double recessive gene (RR). This is because all the pups will have a D in their genes.

So when the offspring inherits the same pair from both parents e.g. a D or R from each parent resulting in a DD or RR then the pair is referred to as homozygous but if pair inherited from both parents are different i.e. a D and a R, this will result in a DR, this pair is referred to as heterozygous.

Inbreeding involves the breeding of closely related dogs that are within two generations, like mating father with daughter, mom with son, brother with sister etc. Inbreeding helps in strengthening certain traits within the breed by mating dogs that are closely related in order to make the gene pool more homozygous i.e. a DD or RR and eliminate a DR. Since a dominant gene (a D) will always manifest in the offspring but a recessive gene (R) will only manifest when it is a pair (RR).

Inbreeding is also employed in situation when breeders want to preserve breed from extinction or start out a new purebred. If the breed used in inbreeding are not carefully selected then you may end up with a terrible bloodline since inbreeding primarily enforces the traits either good or bad within that breed.

Line breeding is a variation of inbreeding which involves the mating of relatives that are not as close as inbreeding.

This dog breeding info is very essential for a successful dog breeding.

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The commitment involve in dog breeding

Raising puppies requires full dedication.