Staging: this is the process of ascertaining how far the tumor has travelled in the body i.e. if it has invaded other organs of the body; it also includes the number and size of the tumor. This procedure is critical in assessing the prognosis and determining the appropriate therapy for optimal remission of the tumor and for achieving the best quality of life possible for the dog.
Clinical staging for dogs is modeled after the standard set by the world health organization (WHO) for staging cancer in human beings. In staging a tumor there are 3 categories defined:
- “T” for the size of the T
- “N” for the invasion of neighboring lymph N
- “M” for the absence or presence of distant M
The outcome of these categories results in 4 clinical stages for the tumor:
- Stage I: localized tumor.
- Stage II: localized tumor that has invaded the neighborhood.
- Stage III: localized tumor with a wider neighborhood spread.
- Stage IV: this involves all the first three stages along with distant metastases.
So a tumor or cancer in its late stage means that the prognosis is less favorable and therefore it will be more difficult to achieve long term remission or cure. The reverse is true, early stage tumor offers the best prognosis and they are easily to cure and achieve long term remission.
Grade: this is the definition of the aggressiveness of the tumor; this is the rate at which the cancer grows and metastasizes to other parts of the body. Therefore a low grade tumor offers a better prognosis and less aggressive compared with a high grade tumor. Different tumors have different levels of aggressiveness (grade).
Dog cancer treatment options
There are different dog cancer treatment options available today but three of these are the most popular and battle tested; these are surgery, chemotherapy and radiation. The table that follows list all the different dog cancer treatment option, tumors for which a particular treatment is indicated and their potential side effects.
|Dog cancer treatment options||Tumors for which this treatment is indicated||Potential side effects|
|Surgery: this is ideal treatment option for localized cancer treatment but can provide other great benefits in case where the cancer has metastasized. Such as increasing the rate of success when combined with other dog cancer treatment options like chemo and/or radiation; for extracting secondary tumors that are caused by metastases; extracting tumors that may get in the way of normal organ functions and also for cosmetic purposes.|
The disadvantage of this dog cancer treatment is that every single cancerous cell may not be removed.
|Pains and possible infections as a result of the surgery.|
Complication may develop during surgery.
The affected area may not function as good as before.
|Chemotherapy: this is a dog cancer treatment option that employs the use of drugs to destroy aggressive and rapidly dividing tumor cells or those that are likely to metastasize. The chemo drug can also be intravenously fed.||Lymphoma|
Mast cell tumors
Soft tissue sarcomas
Gastrointestinal tract tumors
Squamous cell carcinoma
Skin and nasal carcinomas
Central nervous system tumors
|Surrounding tissues will experience severe chemical burns as a result of chemo drug leaking into it from the veins.|
Level of white blood cells may drop significantly due to bone marrow suppression resulting in a greater risk of infection.
|Radiation: this dog cancer treatment is used to destroy or shrink tumors that are already widespread or difficult to reach surgically without affecting normal tissues; it is also employed in situations when the patient’s health may be at risk of surgical complications.||Oral mycosis fungoides|
Extranodal localized lymphoma
Transmissible venereal tumors
Squamous cell carcinoma (facial skin and oral cavity)
Mast cell tumors
Epulis (acanthomatous, fibromatous)
|Radiated areas will experience temporary hair loss.|
If it occurred in the mouth then some/all may be experienced: eating difficulty, drooling, pain in the mouth and loss of appetite.
|Cryosurgery: also referred to as cryotherapy is a dog cancer treatment that employ the use of extreme cold to destroy cancerous cells on the surface of the body and it is usually carried out under local anesthesia. However they cannot be used to kill cells that have metastasized.||Eyelid tumors|
|Hair in the affected area may not retain its original texture and color when it grows back.|
|Hyperthermia: a dog cancer treatment option that destroys cancerous cells with the use of high temperature. The efficacy of this treatment option is a function of the temperature used during treatment, characteristics of the cells and length of treatment. Usually used in conjunction with radiation.||Mast cell tumors|
|Same as cryotherapy|
|Immunotherapy: this is a technique in which the body’s immune system is stimulated (by injection or orally) to either destroy or prevent cancerous cells; it is not likely to kill every cancerous cells therefore it often used in combination.|
The table below is a list of common cancers in dogs, their symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
|Common cancers in dogs||Symptoms||Diagnosis||Dog cancer treatment|
|Skin cancer: skin related cancer ranks high as one of the most prominent type of cancer found in dogs. Mast cell tumor account for the highest percentage of all dog skin cancers, other dog skin cancer includes malignant melanoma and squamous cell tumors.||Mast cell tumors are usually found towards the rear of the dog and limbs. They could either be rapid-growing ulcerated lumps that is white, firm with bluish-purple areas or slow-growing soft and flaccid yellowish lumps.||Biopsy of the lesion.||Surgery is employed to remove the tumor and tissues around the site in order to prevent metastasis. After the surgery heals radiation will be applied to forestall a possible recurrence of the tumor.|
|Mammary tumor: this present the highest occurrence of tumor in female dogs that have not been spayed; even benign mammary gland tumors have a fair chance of becoming malignant.||They may appear as a mass or as a single or multiple lumps in the tissues of the mammary glands. It can grow rapidly and the affected area becomes swollen, red and warm to the touch.||Fine needle aspirate is quite accurate in diagnosing this tumor.||If the dog is in good health and can withstand surgery then radical excision of the tumor can provide a complete cure.|
|Lymphoma: mature bone marrow cells that are part of cellular immune reaction are referred to as lymphocytes; these cells can experience changes and become cancerous cells. The lymphocytic cancers rank as the third most prominent cancer type found in dogs.||Loss of appetite, fever and weight loss.||Biopsy and examination of the lymphoid tissues under microscope.||Chemotherapy is the standard treatment for lymphoma.|
|Tumor of the mouth: this is about 6% of tumors found in dogs and of all oral tumors, melanoma is the most common followed by adenocarcinoma, fibrosarcoma and squamous cell.||Bad breath, weight loss, loss of appetite, difficulty in chewing and swallowing.||Biopsy of the lesion and x-ray to determine the spread of the disease.||Surgery is the first choice and radiation may be used in the case of incomplete removal of the tumor or if it has metastasized.|
|Bone cancer: osteosarcoma is the most common bone tumor found in dogs occurring mostly in the bones of the limbs. They are quite invasive and often metastasize to the lungs.||Most common symptom is gradual lameness.||Biopsy and clinical signs such as mild lameness with signs of pain.||For a long time severance of the affected limb along with chemo has been the mainstay. However surgical removal of the tumor and the reconstruction of the bone at the site of excision have been found to be equally effective.|
One of the reasons cancer have been quite devastating is because of late diagnosis at which point the cancer could have reached an advanced stage. The cost and risk associated with the treatment of dog cancer has led dog owners and vets in search of other forms of therapy that could be just as effective if not more effective, cheaper and less burdensome in terms of the emotional involvement and the toxic level of the treatment.
Natural treatment options that are less toxic and less invasive can be used in combination with the standard traditional approach to dog cancer treatment or they could be used in independently.
While the western part of the world has spent more than a century in the study of what we consider as conventional medicine, the eastern part of the world have spent just as much in the study of holistic medicine. And over the past decades more and more professionals have seen the efficacy of the eastern medicine have included holistic approach in addition to conventional therapy.
Holistic therapy is aimed at addressing both the root cause of the tumor as well as the tumor itself. The heavy impact of traditional vet medicine approach to dog cancer treatment can benefit from holistic support through the use of special diets, antioxidants, vitamins and herbs.
Holistic approaches to canine cancer treatment generally follow a similar approach to the following:
- The well being of the dog is first evaluated and other health challenges are identified are addressed through dietary changes, vitamins, herbs etc.
- In order to eradicate the cancerous cells from the dog’s body the immune system is and the production of cells that can destroy the cancerous cells are enhanced.
- Herbs are employed to halt metastasis and antioxidants are introduced to suppress the cancerous cells from causing further damage.
- The diet is adjusted to include a good douse of omega-3, veggie and reduced carbohydrate.
- Enhancement of the blood with tonic herbs and food.
The financial outlay of dog cancer treatment can be pretty demanding for an average dog owner and considering the fact that more often than not the disease is not usually detected early enough which means that the cost of treatment is likely going to be higher because more than one treatment option may be required.
Dog cancer treatment involving any of the 3 major options that is surgery, chemo or radiation will be expected to be in a range of 2,000 to 10,000 dollars subject to several parameters. With these sort of financial burden it is not unusual for the pet owner to give up and simply watch the dog pass away.
However there are two options that can help in such circumstance:
- A proactive step of purchasing insurance that covers the dog when it falls sick.
- Online search for charity organization that provide financial assistance to sick pets and there are quite a few of them out there.
In summary the best approach to dog cancer treatment is prevention and early detection.